Pinawa Trivia Quiz 2020

Drum roll please…

The winning team of Pinawa Trivia Challenge 2020 is

Trail Mix – Cam and Diann Elliott, Peter Taylor, Libby Crust, Ed Eisner and Doreen Bigelow!

They will be choosing 3 books each from our generously donated book prize box along with a book bag to take them all home in made by Pinawa’s own Leave it to Lou. When you see these bags proudly carried around town be sure to congratulate our winners on their quiz question savvy. This was a fun, unique, and safe way to continue our annual quiz tradition and we thank everyone who played and the hard working quiz question masters.

If anyone wants to ask about their team’s questions and answers specifically, call Tom at (204) 340-3731.

… and now for the answers

Part A: Go for a walk!

Ironwood Trail, Pinawa Club, Sailing and Rowing Club, Sundial, Mall

1 – What does it cost to purchase personalized rock handles at the Pinawa curling club? A: $150

2 – Leslie Wilson of Pinawa has won two Manitoba curling championships. Which years? A: the Pinawa Club displays information about her 2011 and 2017 Provincial Championship but not her 2010 Provincial Championship. Any combination of two of those years received a correct answer. Only one team explained the above information and the mistake precisely.

3 – Pinawa has an honourary life member of the Manitoba Curling Association. Who is he? A: Dennis Smith

4 – Who is the person most associated with saving the Pinawa curling club for 2020 after critical machinery needed to be replaced? A: Linda Gifford

5 – Who are the two women most responsible for the creation of the Ironwood Trail? A: Alice Chambers and Janet Dugle

6 – What was the Ironwood Trail originally named? A: Centennial Trail

7 – The Trans-Canada Trail rebranded in 2016. What is the new name? A: The Great Trail

8 – Who wrote the interpretive sign From Sea to Sea? A: Steve Sheppard and Nancy Bremner

9 – There is a section of river near the Pinawa golf course named after a waterfowl. What is the name of that section? A: Goldeneye Pass

10 – Of the interpretative signs along the Ironwood Trail, there is only one about a fur-bearing animal. What is the animal? A: Otter

11 – Which fish in the Winnipeg River has the longest lifespan? A: Sturgeon

12 – Where did Charles French die? A: Hong Kong

13 – A mooring buoy may not require approval if several conditions are met. One of the conditions is that the vessel attached to the buoy complies with a federal Act. What is the name of that Act? A: Canada Shipping Act

14 – Wilderness Edge rents canoes. It has a sign announcing certain rules. What is the charge for a missing or lost canoe? A: $1500

15 – The Pinawa Sailing and Rowing Club has a nice sign at its entrance driveway. How many oars are visible in the sign? A: 4.

16 – There is a rock and plaque dedicated to the Pinawa LGD. What year was it dedicated? A: 1988

17 – There is a carving of a bear that has four names on it. Two of the individuals have the same family name. What is that name? A: Labelle

18 – There is a book rack in the Sunova mall. Donations go to a charity. Name the charity. A: Survivor’s Hope Crisis Centre

19 – What is the FULL name of the hair salon in the mall? A: Reactions Salon, Barber Shop and Spa

20 – There is a sign of donors to the Pinawa Foundation. Which is the last name listed under Gold donors? A: Peter Sargent

21 – AECL gave five trees to Pinawa in 2002. What kind of trees? A: Green ash.

22 – Where can you find a gnomon in Pinawa? A: Sun dial

23 – About how many years ago did indigenous peoples first enter the Pinawa area? A: 9,000 years ago

24 – Name three technologies invented by indigenous peoples in the Pinawa area? A: Canoe, bow&arrow, clay pottery

25 – What does the word Pinawa mean? A: Calm or sheltered waters

26 – What is Pinawa’s latitude and longitude? A: 50º north and 95º west.

27 – What nymphs are celebrated on one of the Ironwood Trail’s interpretive signs? A: Dragonflies

28 – Marsha Sheppard is the sole author of one of the interpretive signs. Which one? A: The Story about the Forest Understory

29 – Pinawa became a world leader in three nuclear technologies. Name them. A: Nuclear waste management; reactor safety; dry storage of spent fuel.

30 – What is unusual about the leaves on the Ironwood tree? A: they do not fall off in autumn or winter.

31 – What company produced the structures for the World Trail on the Ironwood Trail? A: Playworld Systems

32 – What was the official cause of death of Joseph Furey? A: The interpretive sign for Private Joseph Furey clearly says: “The official cause of death was listed as ‘killed in a typhoon’.”

33 – For 650,000 years, earth’s atmosphere never went above a specific number of Carbon Dioxide parts per million, until 1950. According to an interpretive sign, what is that number? A: 300 parts per million

34 – There are only two species of eagles in Canada. What are they? A: Bald and Golden eagles.

Part B: Go for another walk!

The Pinawa Channel Heritage Walk

35 – Pinawa’s suspension bridge is 50 metres long between the towers and was needed to create a loop connecting the Ironwood Trail and Pinawa Channel Heritage Walk. What year was the grand opening of the suspension bridge? A: 1999

36 – Who was the engineer who designed the suspension bridge? A: Ray Sochaski

37 – The Pinawa part of the Great Trail is also part of a birding trail. What is the name of the birding trail? A: Pine to Prairie International Birding Trail

38 – How many recognized sub-species of Canada Geese are there? A: The interpretive sign for Canada Geese says there are 12 recognized sub-species of Canada Geese.

39 – What is the provincial bird of Manitoba? A: Great Gray Owl

40 – According to an interpretive sign, approximately how many barbed quills does an average porcupine have? A: 30,000

41 – What flower has an umbrella shaped cluster of two to eight greenish-yellow flowers? A: Bluebead Lily

42 – There are two frog interpretive signs. What are the two frogs? A: Gray treefrog and Chorus frog

43 – What is the common name for Bonasa Umbellas? A: Ruffed Grouse

44 – Which of the following do bears NOT do during hibernation? A. Eat. B. Drink. C. Urinate. D. Defecate. E. All of the above. Answer: E.

45 – According to an interpretive sign, how deep can common loons dive? A: over 30 metres

46 – There is an interpretive sign on the Ironwood Trail with identical text to an interpretive sign on the Pinawa Channel Heritage Trail. What is the name on these two signs? A: The ‘sea eagle’. Curiously, the word ‘sea’ does not appear on the signs except in the title.

Part C: Go for a little drive!

47 – The Winnipeg River Heritage Museum is in what town? A: St. Georges

48 – What is the motto of the Winnipeg River Heritage Museum? A: We are the people of the river

49 – The Seven Sisters Generating Station upper corners identify two different years. What are they? A: 1931 and 1949

50 – Who was Whitemouth’s “Iron Rose”? A: Dr. Charlotte Ross

51 – Why was she called the Iron Rose? A: The cairn in Whitemouth says: “Because she pioneered the growing of delicate white roses in Manitoba’s harsh climate, Charlotte became known as the ‘Iron Rose’.” We wanted to see a reference to WHITE roses.

52 – Which nearby town has a cairn describing the rocks of the Canadian Shield? A: Brokenhead (Beausejour is also acceptable.) The cairn is located more or less kitty corner to the Beausejour Tim Horton’s. The cairn at the RM of Brokenhead states that “The base of this cairn is pure granite which forms the Pre-Cambrian Shield surfacing just east of the Brokenhead River and is believed to be the oldest rock formed when the earth was created. … The upper portion [of the cairn] is sedimentary rock, commonly known as “Tyndall Stone” which was formed from a large inland sea, with many species of coral, snails and other marine life. The fossils of which are visible in the stone … The Brokenhead River appears to divide the overlay of these geological formations. …”

53 – Which local curler has appeared in 47 provincial curling championships? A: John Usackis

54 – In 1927 the first commercial air base in Manitoba was Western Canada Airways Ltd. which became Canadian Airways Ltd. in 1930. Which nearby town has a cairn commemorating the father of Canadian aviation, and what was his name? A: Lac du Bonnet and James A Richardson. The Winnipeg airport is named after Richardson.

55 – The first official airmail service in Canada was in Lac du Bonnet in 1927. Who was the pilot for that official first official airmail flight? A: W.L. Brintnell piloted the first “official” airmail. Captain F.J. Stevenson piloted the first “semi” official airmail. Both are mentioned on the same plaque in Lac du Bonnet. Brintnell was the answer we wanted.

56 – Raymond Honke was a local sports enthusiast and excellent fastball pitcher for the Hungry 9. What nearby town has a sign welcoming visitors to the home of the Hungry 9? A: River Hills

57 – Manitouabee, or “where the spirit sits,” is located nearby in the Whiteshell Provincial Park. What is another name for this location? A: Bannock Point Petroforms

58 – What do the names Pinawa and Lee River have in common? A: The word Lee also means sheltered (e.g.: the lee side instead of the windward side)

59 – What does the name “Seven Sisters” refer to? A: a series of seven rapids that were in that location on the Winnipeg River until hydro-electric dams eliminated the rapids.

60 – How many hydro dams are currently producing electricity on the Manitoba portion of the Winnipeg River (producing 560 megawatts collectively)? A: Six. (Pointe du Bois, Great Falls, Slave Falls, Seven Sisters, Pine Falls, McArthur Falls)

61 -The Midwinter Heritage Museum in East Braintree is a National Heritage Site. What is it? A: A one-room school house built in 1917.

62 – Of Canada’s officially designated heritage rivers, four are in Manitoba. Which one is in eastern Manitoba? A: Bloodvein River

63 – Pimachiowin Aki, nearly 3 million hectares north of Pinawa, was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2018. What does Pimachiowin Aki mean? A: The Land that Gives Life

64 – Which river supplies Lake Winnipeg with nearly 40% of Lake Winnipeg’s inflow, more than any other river? A: Winnipeg River

65 – We are all treaty people. Pinawa is part of Treaty 3. Which First Nation member of Treaty 3 is closest to Pinawa, geographically? A: The First Nation that is a signatory to Treaty 3 and is physically closest to Pinawa is Whitedog First Nation (Wabaseemoong is also acceptable). The only Manitoba First Nation that is a signatory of Treaty 3 is Buffalo Point First Nation. However, because the question used the word “member” instead of “signatory”, Sagkeeng was accepted. Although Sagkeeng is a signatory of Treaty 1, because the boundary of treaties 1, 3 and 5 meet at Sagkeeng, Sagkeeng First Nation participates in each of the treaty organizations. Sagkeeng is only slightly closer to Pinawa than Wabaseemoong.

66 – There is only one First Nation in Manitoba that is a signatory of Treaty 3, the rest are in northwest Ontario. Which Manitoba First Nation is part of Treaty 3? A: Buffalo Point First Nation

67 – Do any other First Nations in Manitoba participate in Treaty 3? A: yes. Although Sagkeeng is a Treaty 1 signatory nation, Sagkeeng is unique among other Anishinaabe communities, as it a member of Treaty 1, Treaty 2, and Treaty 3. All three treaty boundaries merge at Sagkeeng. Which means it is a member of the Grand Council of Treaty 3 (GCT3).

68 – The Canadian Pacific Railway runs an annual Christmas train across Canada. Where is the stop closest to Pinawa? A: Whitemouth

69 – There is a monument close to Pinawa with three plaques. One describes the Winnipeg River. One describes the eastern boundary of the grant of land to Lord Selkirk. One describes the eastern boundary of the “postage stamp” province of Manitoba. Where is this monument? A: Winnipeg River Bridge Park on hwy. 313 between hwy 520 and Lac du Bonnet.

Part D: History and local geography!

70 – Probably the single-most viewed photograph of Pinawa is as an unidentifiable speck on a pale blue dot. The person who arranged that photograph said the image emphasizes “our responsibility to deal more kindly with one another and to preserve and cherish the pale blue dot.” Who said this? A: Carl Sagan, about the pale blue dot photograph of earth taken by Voyager 1 in 1990.

71 – The Canadian Shield is among the oldest rock on earth. It is believed that rocks in northern Quebec (Inukjuak) are the oldest found on earth. How old are they? A: Approximately 4.3 billion years old.

72 – How old was the earth before it began forming hard rock? A: Approximately 300 million years old.

73 – About what percentage of Canada’s land mass is covered by the Canadian Shield? A: 50%

74 – Maps are designed using various “projections.” What projection is used for the world map outside the Pinawa Public Library? A: Equal Earth Projection

75 – What was the name of the ice sheet that covered all of Canada for about 70,000 years during the ice age? A: Laurentide Ice Sheet

76 – What Canadian climatic event is thought to have caused the invention of agriculture in what is called the Middle East? (in other words, how did Pinawa create human civilization?) A: the melting of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

The melting sent vast amounts of low-density fresh water into the oceans through the Mackenzie River and Hudson Bay which is thought to have caused rising ocean levels, flooding and colder temperatures, particularly in Europe and the Middle East. It is thought that this reduced the number of wildlife in the Middle East and forced the early Natufian population into the more labour-intensive and nutritionally-poorer about cereal cultivation. Details of the rise of agriculture, and impacts of agriculture on humans and the planet, are still being debated today.

We accepted every answer: ending of the ice age, global warming, stable climate, melting of Lake Agassiz, …

77 – Pinawa was at the bottom of a gigantic lake, which for a time was the largest lake in the world. What is the name of that lake? A: Lake Agassiz

78 – Pinawa is part of the boreal forest, which circles the entire world, mostly north of 50º. It is the world’s largest land biome. What is the boreal forest called in Europe? A: The Taiga

79 – The World Wildlife Fund lists four different types of forests: tropical, sub-tropical, temperate and boreal. What distinguishes the boreal forest from the others? A: the boreal forest is adapted to live with very cold temperatures

80 – How many metres does the Winnipeg River drop from Lake of the Woods to Lake Winnipeg? (almost the entirety of this drop now occurs across the hydro dams on the river instead of the rapids and falls that used to be on the river) A: 100 metres

81 – What are the Anicinabe’s Seven Sacred Laws? A: Respect; Love; Courage; Honesty; Wisdom; Humility; Truth

82 – What are the animals that correspond to each of the Seven Sacred Laws? A: Respect (Bison); Love (Eagle); Courage (Bear); Honesty (Bigfoot); Wisdom (Beaver); Humility (Wolf); Truth (Turtle)

83 – What are the seven Anicinabe clans? A: Loon, crane, fish, bird, bear, marten, and deer.

84 – The Pinawa Secondary School has a beautifully extensive history of “civilization” in one of its hallways, created by George Gibson. The earliest date on this timeline is 4,500 BC. Approximately how many years of history of homo sapiens sapiens are NOT on the Pinawa school timeline? A: Approximately 300,000 years of human history are not on this timeline, using the fossil finds in Jebel Irhoud, Morocco as a starting point. Earlier homo species go to approximately 2.5 million years ago, but homo sapiens sapiens is the only remaining homo species.

85 – The Doctrine of Discovery was the idea that European/Christian monarchs could own any lands they discovered (by sending out explorers in their name). Early European explorers merely landed at different places on coastlines, usually at the mouths of rivers. What rule was formulated to decide how much of the inland territory was owned by the European monarch when one of his explorers landed on a coastline? A: the entire watershed of that river or coastline (i.e.: all of the lands adjacent to the waters that drain into the ocean through the river mouth “discovered” at the ocean coast). The doctrine of “terra nullius” was used far more in Australia and rarely, if ever, used in Canada and in any event, does not define how much of the inland would belong to the “discoverer” of a river mouth.

86 – In what year did England “discover” Pinawa? (in other words, what was the year of the event brought the Winnipeg River into England’s claim; hint: earlier than the voyage of the Nonsuch) A: The answer is 1612 and the landing on the Hudson Bay coast by Thomas Button, who was searching for Henry Hudson who in 1611 had been cast adrift to die by his mutinous crew who returned to England. Button was sent to find Hudson. However, we accepted Hudson. He was the first to see the bay, and he over-wintered in James Bay. We did not accept 1670, the year that the King of England created the Hudson’s Bay Company charter. Note also that the Nonsuch voyage was 1668.

87 – Why was the Pinawa area first claimed by England and not by France? A: Because the Pinawa area is on the Winnipeg River and the Winnipeg River is part of the Hudson Bay watershed. We accepted the answer that two French explorers (Radisson and Groseilliers) were unsuccessful in convincing France to pursue the fur trade in the Hudson Bay watershed (France later came to its senses).

88 – The Hudson’s Bay Company was created by the King of England in 1670. How many millions of square kilometres of indigenous land did he give to 18 English investors? A: 3.9 million square kilometres (about 2.5 million square miles but we asked for kilometres).

89 – Protestants accounted for most of the hat-makers in France; when they fled from France to England, this helped England dominate European fur trade and hat-making. What event in 1685 caused the Protestants to flee France? A: The Edict of Nantes was revoked by Louis XIV. In 1598 Edict of Nantes had given Protestants religious freedom and ended the wars between Catholics and Protestants in France.

90 – Pinawa (the Winnipeg River) was a very important part of the fur trade, which trapped beaver and other animals to be turned into hats in Europe. How did the expression “mad as a hatter” come to be? A: Mercury nitrate was used in the hat-making process to make fur hats waterproof.

91 – Two First Nations in the Winnipeg River’s drainage basin have been seriously affected by mercury poisoning used in bleaching pulp products. Which two First Nations? A: Grassy Narrows and Whitedog (Wabaseemoong is also acceptable)

92 – Jacques de Noyon in 1688 used the Kam-Dog-Maligne route to transfer from the St. Lawrence drainage basin to the Hudson Bay/Winnipeg River drainage basin so that Montreal fur-traders could compete with the Hudson’s Bay Company. What does Kam-Dog-Maligne refer to? A: Kam is short for the Kaministiquia River, which drains into Lake Superior and is fed by Dog Lake. After many difficult portages west of Dog Lake, one eventually arrives at Maligne River and from there, westward to the Winnipeg River and beyond. The Savanne River is the eastern-most river in the Winnipeg River drainage basin and is a first step to getting to the Maligne River.

93 – What treaty ended military skirmishes between England and France in Hudson Bay? A. The 1713 Treaty of Utrecht

94 – Who drew the first functional map for La Verendrye? (in other words, the first map that included the Pinawa area) A: Auchagah, a Cree guide drew his map in 1729.

Auchagah taught La Verendrye about the Grand Portage/Pigeon River route which was easier than the Kam-Dog-Maligne route. The Grand Portage route had to be abandoned after the American Revolution and the US intention to impose duties on Canadian goods passing through the Grand Portage.

95 – The worst human catastrophe in the Pinawa area and all of western Canada happened in 1781-82. What was that catastrophe? A: Smallpox epidemic that nearly destroyed the indigenous peoples

96 – What was the name of the first currency used during the fur trade in the Pinawa area? (hint: not English pounds, French francs or Canadian dollars) A: The answer is “made beaver”. We accepted beaver pelts and beaver tokens, even though the tokens came later.

97 – Woolen “point” blankets were one of the most important items indigenous peoples wanted in exchange for furs. What did the “points” indicate? A: size, and therefore cost. One standard blanket cost one made beaver.

98 – After the British took Canada from France in 1759, the Montreal-based North West Company was formed in 1779 largely because distances had become so great as to require a highly organized transport system. The Winnipeg River became a primary trade route for the North West Company. Pemmican became the primary food for the extensive voyages. What meat is in pemmican? A: bison

99 – Beavers were trapped to near extinction. How did the excessive trapping of beavers contribute to the near extinction of the bison? A: Note that this question was immediately preceded by a question of what meat was used in pemmican (bison). The answer we were looking for was that vast quantities of pemmican were needed for increasingly long voyages in the Canadian northwest as beavers were no longer available in closer areas. Yes, bison hides came into greater demand for various reasons, including for drive belts for new machinery of the industrial revolution, but increased demand for bison hides was not related to the disappearance of the beaver. Industrial quantities of bison meat to feed voyageurs was. (However, because of an error of including the answer in one team’s question sheet, we marked all teams correct for this question.)

100 – The North West Company created an exclusive club for company men in Montreal who had spent at least one winter west of Lake Superior. What was the name of the club? A: the Beaver Club

101 – The Hudson’s Bay Company gave Lord Selkirk 300,000 square kilometres of land in Manitoba. What is the connection between the Winnipeg River and the Selkirk settlement? A: Although various words might be used to describe the Selkirk land grant and the Selkirk settlement, what we were looking for, and as the cairn at the foot of the (former) “skinny” bridge between Hwy 520 and Lac du Bonnet says (it’s on Hwy 313), the Winnipeg River was the eastern boundary of the land grant.

102 – In order to keep food within the Selkirk settlement, in 1814, the Pemmican Proclamation forbade indigenous people and others from selling food outside of the settlement, disrupting their long-standing trade of selling pemmican to fur trade workers. This was part of what is called the “pemmican wars”. Who issued the Pemmican Proclamation? A: Miles MacDonnell, whom local indigenous peoples called “the chief of the gardeners”.

103 – Which corporation that operated in the Pinawa area in the 1700s is still operating in Pinawa? (Also, it is the only such store operating on the Winnipeg River.) A: North West Company (Solo Market is acceptable)

104 – Canada “bought” western Canada (including Manitoba and Pinawa) from the Hudson’s Bay Company. How much money did Canada pay the Company? A: £300,000.

In 1869-70, the new country of Canada arranged for England to buy all of western Canada from the Hudson’s Bay Company for £300,000 in cash compensation; 1/20 of all lands to be surveyed in the Fertile Belt – an area bounded by the Winnipeg River in the east, the 49th parallel in the south, the Rockies in the west and the North Saskatchewan River in the north (HBC retained 120 million acres). In addition, HBC would receive lands around each of its posts (50,000 acres) and would be guaranteed the right to continue its trade without hindrance or any special taxation or tariffs.

105 – Why did Manitoba wind up with no government in the winter of 1869-70, when neither the Hudson’s Bay Company nor Canada had a government in place, which necessitated the people of Manitoba to democratically elect their own provisional government, headed by Louis Riel? A: The answer is because Canada had not released the money that would be used to buy western Canada from the Company. McDougall was not yet governor of land that belonged to Canada and the Hudson’s Bay Company had stopped governing. The main point is that there was a governmental vacuum that needed to be filled. However, we accepted Red River Rebellion and the stopping of McDougall.

The HBC signed the Deed of Surrender on Nov. 19, 1869. The Canadian government ratified the deal December 1st, but Canada had not made full payment and decided to delay its takeover. Thus, Manitoba was left with no government. On December 2, William McDougall, whom Canada had named Governor of the Red River Settlement but did not inform him of the delay in Canada taking over, decided to try to organize a military force against the Metis. Riel and 200 Metis surrounded them on December 7 and forced a full surrender and imprisoned them. Riel and his followers established a provisional Metis government on December 8. HBC forwarded the executed Deed of Surrender to England’s Colonial Office on May 7, 1870. On May 11, Canada’s London representative instructed its bankers to pay the compensation owed to HBC under the terms of the Deed of Surrender, which had been on deposit since November.

106 – Pinawa/Winnipeg River is a part of a designated “Event of National Historic Significance”. This was the last time that England’s army was used to assert England’s sovereignty in Canada. What was the event? A: The answer we were looking for was Red River Expedition (or Wolseley Expedition). The event was the actual voyage (expedition) from eastern Canada to Red River, which brought an army of 1,000 men and arms right by Pinawa, in canoes. See and also

107 – One thousand soldiers canoed past Pinawa in the summer of 1870. It is said that they were coming to suppress the Red River resistance. Was there any resistance when they arrived? A: No. Riel and some of his colleagues were intending to meet them, but when they heard rumours that the incoming army intended to arrest and possibly execute them, they fled to the United States. The point is that Riel’s democratic government had already achieved what they wanted to achieve: negotiate Manitoba’s entry into Canada, which was accomplished with the Manitoba Act, well before the Wolseley Expedition brought to Red River had arrived. For various reasons, including the reign of terror and Canada’s violation of the Manitoba Act, the Metis population dispersed out of Manitoba, “the postage stamp province”.

In fact, the soldiers caused so much misery in various ways that their stay in Red River was called the “reign of terror” by the Metis (who were about 90% of the Red River population). On September 13, Elzear Goulet (one of the jury members of Scott’s trial) was chased by a mob until he dove into the Red River where he was stoned and drowned. There were no arrests for his murder. During the same period another Metis and an Irish-American were killed and two others, one of whom was André Nault, who was badly beaten, by unidentified assailants. These are only some examples of the reign of terror that drove indigenous peoples out of the new province.

1o8 – How many times was Louis Riel elected to represented in the Canadian House of Commons? A: Three times. He was elected in the federal riding of Provencher in a by-election in October 1873. Riel was re-elected in the February 1874 general election, at which point he travelled to Ottawa and signed the members’ register at the House of Commons. But before taking his seat, he was expelled from the House on a motion introduced by the Ontario Orange leader Mackenzie Bowell. He was re-elected in a constituency by-election in Provencher in September 1874 Riel delayed in taking his seat and was later expelled from the House.” The Canadian Encyclopedia, “Louis Riel,” accessed on December 12, 2016, .

109 – Was anyone charged and convicted for the death of Thomas Scott? A: Ambrose Lepine, who was in charge of the court martial that convicted Scott of rebelling against the provisional government, was charged with Scott’s murder, the trial was October 13, 1874 to November 4, 1874. Lepine was convicted of murdering Scott and despite the jury’s request for mercy was sentenced to hang in 1874. Governor General Lord Dufferin commuted his sentence to two years imprisonment. Dufferin was the first Governor General to visit Manitoba and arrived via the Winnipeg River. Dufferin acted on his own without authority from London or request from Ottawa. Lepine died in 1923 and his funeral was attended by Manitoba Premier Rodland Roblin and other dignitaries.

110 – What was the name of the trail that connected Thunder Bay and Winnipeg in the 1800s (and thus replaced the Winnipeg River as the main route from eastern to western Canada)? A: Dawson Trail

111 – In 1888, England’s Judicial Committee of the Privy Council issued possibly the most important court decision ever for Canada. It was certainly the most important indigenous and treaty case in Canada’s first century, even though indigenous people were not involved in the case. It was a Treaty 3 case. It decided that even though Canada’s constitution gives the federal government legislative jurisdiction over Indians and lands reserved for Indians, and even though Canada negotiated the treaties and pays the amounts required by the treaties, the provinces own the treaty lands (not the indigenous people and not the federal government – except for the small Indian reserves). What was the name of the case? A: St. Catharines Milling and Lumber Co. v. R.

112 – Manitoba was in violation of a major statute for almost its entire existence. The Supreme Court of Canada said so in in 1986 in Bilodeau v. A.G. (Man.) (French language rights) and again in 2013 in Manitoba Metis Federation Inc. v. Canada (Attorney General) (Metis land rights). What major statute has Manitoba ignored all these years? A: The Manitoba Act, which is a constitutional law, not a mere statute of the legislature.

113 – Which native of the Winnipeg River was both the former Grand Chief of the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs and National Chief of the Assembly of First Nations? A: Phil Fontaine

114 – Over 80 indigenous and non-indigenous people gathered in Pinawa in 2008 to “live into right relations” between indigenous and non-indigenous people. Which Christian denomination organized this gathering? A: United Church of Canada

115 – What were the years of operation of the Pinawa Dam? A: 1906-1951

116 – What company created the old Pinawa dam? (five words) A: The Winnipeg Electric Street Railway Company. The key word we were looking for was “street” as in “street railway” company. The word “street” is frequently omitted in the name.

117 – What was the maximum electricity production at Old Pinawa Dam? A: 23 Megawatts

118 – Pointe du Bois is the oldest operating hydro dam on the Winnipeg River. Pointe du Bois hydro resulted in the creation of Winnipeg Hydro. Pointe du Bois hydro was in competition with Pinawa hydro. Why was the Pointe du Bois hydro station created? A: the price of electricity charged to the City of Winnipeg from Pinawa was too high.

119 – How did the Canadian military use the Pinawa Dam after it was decommissioned? A: As a training site for aerial bombing

120 – The Winnipeg River drainage basin supplies the City of Winnipeg with its water through an aqueduct between Winnipeg and the Lake of the Woods. In order to build the aqueduct, a railway was built to facilitate movement of men and equipment. The railway was also used by settlers and to transport gravel, firewood and lumber. This was another way that the usefulness of the Winnipeg River as a trans-Canada route was diminished. What was the name of the railway built for the aqueduct? A: Greater Winnipeg Water District Railway

121 – According a local interpretive sign, RCMP Sergeant RH Nicholson was killed in 1928. What was he doing when he was killed? A: Conducting a search for illegal alcohol. The interpretive sign is at the Lac du Bonnet RCMP station.

122 – A local town had the first female mayor elected in Manitoba in 1953. What was her name and town? A: Edythe Ehrlich (then Brown, nee Waters) became the Mayor of Lac du Bonnet. (While at university for a home economics degree she was part of the fraternity of Delta Delta Delta.)

123 – In which year was the agreement reached to create the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE)? A: 1960

124 – Where was F.W. Gilbert, the forefather of Pinawa, born? A: Winnipeg

125 – What current address housed the first town office, post office, police station and telephone? A: 17 McGregor Crescent

126 – In 1978, Cosmos 954, a nuclear-powered Russian satellite, fell to earth. What is its connection to Pinawa? A: a radioactive piece of metal from the satellite was sent to Pinawa for analysis.

127 – In 1978, the Government of Canada and which province established the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program? A: Ontario.

128 – In 1982, the URL project began here. What does URL stand for? A: Underground Research Laboratory, to study the potential of burying nuclear waste in the Canadian shield

129 – What years was the WR-1 organically cooled research reactor activated and shut down? A: 1965 and 1985

130 – In 1978 and 1986, there were two nuclear accidents that attracted world-wide attention (not counting Cosmos 954). What were they? A. The question has a typo; it should have referred to 1979 and the answer would have been Three Mile Island. No team was penalized for our mistake.

131 – Manitoba is one of the only jurisdictions in North America with a High-Level Radioactive Waste Act, enacted in 1987. What is primary purpose of the law? A: The answer we were looking for is that the Act prohibits Manitoba from accepting to store nuclear waste produced in other jurisdictions. However, we accepted the prohibition of the disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

132 – In 2002, the Government of Canada enacted a law requiring nuclear energy corporations in Canada to form a waste management organization and to create a fund for nuclear waste management in Canada. What was the name of the federal Act? A: Nuclear Fuel Waste Act

133 – A “willing host” will have to accept approximately 57,000 tonnes of used nuclear fuel to be buried in their area. In 2020, there is only one community remaining for consideration and it is located in the Winnipeg River drainage basin. Which community is that? A: Ignace, Ontario

134 – Which of the following is an interpretive sign in Pinawa? A. Treaty 3. B. Seven Sacred Laws. C. Beaver. D. Pemmican. E. North West Company. F. Winnipeg River drainage basin. G. Map showing each of the original “seven sisters” falls. H. All of the above. I. None of the above. Answer: I.

Part E: Winnipeg River Painting!

135 – In 1825, who was the first European to paint Slave Falls on the Winnipeg River, during the Mackenzie River Expedition? A: English naval officer George Back.

136 – W.H.E. Napier, engineer, also painted Slave Falls in 1857 while on a famous expedition to the west. Which expedition? A: the Canadian Red River, Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition (the Hind Expedition)

137 – Who was the first tourist to the Pinawa area, in the 1840s? Hint: a famous painter. A: Paul Kane, who painted Encampment, Winnipeg River and another titled White Mud Portage

138 – Which woman became famous for her large paintings of the fur trade (in the 1860s)? A: Frances Anne Hopkins

139 – Which Governor General of Canada painted Our Canoe on the Winnipeg River in 1877? (hint: see an interpretive sign) A: Lord Dufferin

140 – Only one member of the Group of Seven was born in Manitoba. Who? A: L.L. Fitzgerald

141 – Only two members of the Indian Group of Seven were from eastern Manitoba. Who? A: Jackson Beardy (Garden Hill First Nation) and Eddy Cobiness (Buffalo Point First Nation) (It can be argued that Cobiness was born the US side of border and thus not from Manitoba, but it is also true that he was part of Buffalo Point First Nation which is in Manitoba and the First Nation pre-dated the US-Canadian border.)

Part F: Test your current local knowledge

142 – A local artist has become famous for his pencil portraits of indigenous people. Who? A: Gerald Kuehl

143 – How did the Mad Backs gym get its name? A: Madison Backer

144 – Pinawa has great cross-country ski trails in an annual loppet. What is a loppet? A: a large gathering of cross-country skiers, usually involving ski races

145 – Who is the current President of the Pinawa Golf and Country Club? A: Paul Barnsdale

146 – Who is the current chair of the Pinawa Public Library Board? A: Michael Luke